Category Archive : Cosmos

Dans une première monumentale, les scientifiques découvrent un supraconducteur à température ambiante

superconductor

Photo de l’Université de Rochester / J. Adam Fenster


    Pour la toute première fois, les physiciens ont atteint la supraconductivité à «température ambiante», ce qui signifie sans surfusion du conducteur Matériel. Dans ce cas, la température ambiante est celle fixée par un membre avare de la famille: juste une nuance inférieure à 60 degrés Fahrenheit. Les implications pour le génie électrique et la physique pourraient être stupéfiantes, mais il y a encore un énorme problème.

    🤯 Vous aimez la physique badass. Nous aussi. Allons-y ensemble.

    Le record précédent, ScienceAlert explique , était près de -10 degrés Fahrenheit – mais même cela était un pas important vers la pièce Température. Parlons de la supraconductivité, de sa promesse et des raisons pour lesquelles elle a été freinée par la logistique de la surfusion. Ensuite, nous pouvons expliquer en quoi ce nouveau disque est totalement différent.

    Un supraconducteur est un matériau qui conduit l’électricité, qui se réfère simplement à un flux constant d’électrons à travers un milieu. Les conducteurs réguliers sont assez bons , comme les lignes électriques et les câbles que nous utilisons dans nos maisons. Mais ils ont libéré de l’énergie sous forme de résistance.

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    Les semi-conducteurs, utilisés dans les circuits informatiques et bien plus encore, utilisent les propriétés de conductance et de résistance pour créer des portes logiques qui dirigent les électrons. C’est comme Plinko , mais volontairement. Les supraconducteurs semblent impossibles: ce sont des matériaux qui conduisent, mais n’ont aucune résistance . Les conséquences sont ahurissantes, de l’informatique à grande vitesse, à l’énergie nucléaire , aux aimants incroyables qui alimentent les IRM et autres équipements.

    diamond anvil
    En pressant du carbone, du soufre et de l’hydrogène – hydrure de soufre carboné – dans une enclume en diamant, les chercheurs ont découvert que ce composé était supraconducteur jusqu’à près de 60 degrés Fahrenheit.

    Michael Osadciw

    Mais jusqu’à présent, les supraconducteurs nécessitent tous un refroidissement. Pendant longtemps, ce refroidissement a été extrême – comme s’approcher du zéro absolu avec une cryogénie à un million de dollars extrême. Les très rares exemples de matériaux supraconducteurs à des températures moins froides (mais toujours extrêmement froides) représentent des décennies de travail. Le nouveau supraconducteur beaucoup plus chaud représente une combinaison judicieuse du bon composé chimique avec la bonne quantité de pression.

    Le secret, sur le plan chimique, est de choisir des éléments qui se lient très facilement, mais qui sont encore très légers. C’est pourquoi l’hydrogène, qui est si lié qu’il est extrêmement difficile à isoler, est un élément clé de chacun des supraconducteurs qui ont régulièrement progressé vers la température ambiante.

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    En pressant du carbone, du soufre et de l’hydrogène – hydrure de soufre carboné – dans une enclume de diamant, les chercheurs ont découvert que ce composé était supraconducteur jusqu’à près de 60 degrés Fahrenheit. L’enclume diamantée applique près de 300 gigapascals de pression, ce qui représente environ 3 millions de fois la pression de l’air ambiant sur Terre, pour une quantité extraordinairement infime d’hydrure de soufre carboné.

    Mais même à l’intérieur de ces paramètres extrêmes, il s’agit toujours du premier matériau à être supraconducteur à une température presque aussi élevée. Maintenant que les chercheurs ont atterri sur un mélange chimique qui résiste à la température, ils peuvent également concentrer leurs efforts sur le remixage pour le rapprocher de la pression ambiante.

    «L’état supraconducteur est observé sur une large plage de pression dans la cellule de l’enclume de diamant, de 140 à 275 gigapascals, avec une forte hausse de la température de transition au-dessus de 220 gigapascals», expliquent les chercheurs dans leur article . Cela signifie que bien que le matériau soit supraconducteur sur une vaste gamme de pressions ascendantes, il ne tolérait que les températures de l’air les plus élevées alors qu’il était également aux pressions les plus élevées.

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    Le match de hockey amateur de la région de Tampa Bay est devenu un événement “ super-épandeur '' cet été

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    Le match de hockey amateur de la région de Tampa Bay est devenu un événement «super-épandeur» cet été – YouTube [19459083 ] [ 19459100]

    Dead Russian satellite and defunct Chinese rocket may collide in orbit

    An out-of-commission Russian satellite and a discarded Chinese rocket orbiting the Earth more than 600 miles above the surface have a ‘very high risk’ of colliding tonight.

    LeoLabs, a firm that tracks space debris, reveals these objects are likely to pass less than 40 feet from each other, and shared a model that shows a 10 percent chance of the two smashing into each other at 20:56 ET on Thursday (01:56 BST Friday) just above Antarctica.

    The objects have a combined mass of 2.8 metric tons, and the impact would add thousands of pieces of space junk – anywhere from 10 percent to 20 percent more debris – to the 170 million currently floating in orbit. 

    The speed of the collision between the Russian Kosmos-2004 satellite and the Chinese Chang Zheng 4C rocket would be around 14.7km per second (32,882 miles per hour), LeoLabs estimates. 

    Although there is no threat to people on Earth, the man-made materials would pose a significant risk to functioning satellites in orbit.

    Scroll down for video 

    An out of commission Russian satellite (Kosmos-2004) and a discarded Chinese rocket (CZ-4C) floating in orbit more than 600 miles above Earth’s surface are at risk of colliding. Image shows the two trajectories and where they'd hit, just above Antarctica. Russian Kosmos-2004 moving towards the southern poles and the Chinese satellite is heading north

    An out of commission Russian satellite (Kosmos-2004) and a discarded Chinese rocket (CZ-4C) floating in orbit more than 600 miles above Earth’s surface are at risk of colliding. Image shows the two trajectories and where they’d hit, just above Antarctica. Russian Kosmos-2004 moving towards the southern poles and the Chinese satellite is heading north

    ‘This event continues to be very high risk and will likely stay this way through the time of closest approach,’ LeoLabs said in a tweet.

    Astronomer Jonathan McDowell weighed in on the event with a model prediction.

    The image shows the Russian Kosmos-2004 moving towards the southern poles and the Chinese Chang Zheng 4C heading north over the Falklands.

    The predicted paths also suggest the two could eventually meet head on over Antarctica. 

    Astronomer Jonathan McDowell weighed in on the event with a model prediction. The image shows the Russian Kosmos-2004 moving towards the southern poles above Earth and the Chinese Chang Zheng 4C is heading north over the Falklands

    Astronomer Jonathan McDowell weighed in on the event with a model prediction. The image shows the Russian Kosmos-2004 moving towards the southern poles above Earth and the Chinese Chang Zheng 4C is heading north over the Falklands

    LeoLabs image shows the out of commission Russian satellite (marked as COSMOS 2004) and the discarded Chinese rocket (marked as CZ-4C R/B) at the point of impact

    LeoLabs image shows the out of commission Russian satellite (marked as COSMOS 2004) and the discarded Chinese rocket (marked as CZ-4C R/B) at the point of impact

    LeoLabs , a firm that tracks space debris, reveals these objects will pass less than 82 feet apart and shared a model that shows a 20 percent chance of the two smashing into each other

    LeoLabs , a firm that tracks space debris, reveals these objects will pass less than 82 feet apart and shared a model that shows a 20 percent chance of the two smashing into each other

    McDowell also notes that the two items breaking apart during impact will add 10 to 20 percent more space junk into orbit. 

    Auckland University physics professor Richard Easther told Stuff that the collision would leave ‘lots and lots of uncontrollable pieces of debris’.  

    ‘It’s going to leave a mess… any resulting debris would continue travelling in orbit at high speed,’ he said.  

    The pieces would be moving at speeds of around 17,000 miles an hour (28,000 km an hour), which is faster than a bullet, he added. 

    However, the Aerospace Corporation, based in California, calculated a much lower chance of collision – one in 250,000 million.

    ‘I don’t mean to throw any shade whatsoever on [LeoLabs’] process or their sensors or anything else,’ Ted Muelhaupt at the Aerospace Corporation told Business Insider

    ‘But the sensors, the data we have access to says we’re pretty confident [the satellites] are not going to hit.’ 

    A Chang Zheng 4C carrier rocket, like the one on the collision course, blasts off from the launch pad at the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in Taiyuan, capital of north China's Shanxi Province, in October 2014

    A Chang Zheng 4C carrier rocket, like the one on the collision course, blasts off from the launch pad at the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in Taiyuan, capital of north China’s Shanxi Province, in October 2014

    A report released in May shows Russia is responsible for the majority of space junk floating in orbit – accounting for some 14,403 pieces in total. 

    These include the upper stage of a type of rocket known as a space tug, called Fregat-SB, which was used to launch a scientific radio telescope, called Spektr-R, into space in 2011.

    Fregat-SB was left floating after it helped deliver Spektr-R, and broke apart on May 8 somewhere above the Indian Ocean after nine years in orbit, leaving dozens of pieces of debris around Earth, according to Roscosmos.

     Spektr-R stopped responding to ground control last year and was declared dead in May 2019.  

    An expert notes that the two breaking apart during impact will add 10 to 20 percent more space junk into orbit. These pieces can destroy satellites, telescopes, spacecraft

    An expert notes that the two breaking apart during impact will add 10 to 20 percent more space junk into orbit. These pieces can destroy satellites, telescopes, spacecraft

    These pieces can destroy satellites, telescopes and spacecraft, and one NASA scientist fears they could eventually create the Kessler syndrome.

    This theoretical scenario was proposed by NASA scientist Donald Kessler in 1978, which says the density of objects in low-Earth orbit could increase to a point where collisions occur that generates more space debris to the point that it is dangerous for humans to venture off the planet.

    A recent study has proposed a way to limit the number of satellites in space to help decrease the growing space debris problem

    Researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder say an international agreement would be needed in order to charge operators ‘orbital use fees’ for every device launched into orbit.

    The amount charged would increase each year to 2040 up to $235,000, according to the team, who say the orbit becomes clearer each year, reducing the risk costs.

    WHAT IS SPACE JUNK? MORE THAN 170 MILLION PIECES OF DEAD SATELLITES, SPENT ROCKETS AND FLAKES OF PAINT POSE ‘THREAT’ TO SPACE INDUSTRY

    There are an estimated 170 million pieces of so-called ‘space junk’ – left behind after missions that can be as big as spent rocket stages or as small as paint flakes – in orbit alongside some US$700 billion (£555bn) of space infrastructure.

    But only 22,000 are tracked, and with the fragments able to travel at speeds above 16,777 mph (27,000kmh), even tiny pieces could seriously damage or destroy satellites.

    However, traditional gripping methods don’t work in space, as suction cups do not function in a vacuum and temperatures are too cold for substances like tape and glue.

    Grippers based around magnets are useless because most of the debris in orbit around Earth is not magnetic.

    Around 500,000 pieces of human-made debris (artist’s impression) currently orbit our planet, made up of disused satellites, bits of spacecraft and spent rockets

    Most proposed solutions, including debris harpoons, either require or cause forceful interaction with the debris, which could push those objects in unintended, unpredictable directions.

    Scientists point to two events that have badly worsened the problem of space junk.

    The first was in February 2009, when an Iridium telecoms satellite and Kosmos-2251, a Russian military satellite, accidentally collided.

    The second was in January 2007, when China tested an anti-satellite weapon on an old Fengyun weather satellite.

    Experts also pointed to two sites that have become worryingly cluttered.

    One is low Earth orbit which is used by satnav satellites, the ISS, China’s manned missions and the Hubble telescope, among others.

    The other is in geostationary orbit, and is used by communications, weather and surveillance satellites that must maintain a fixed position relative to Earth. 

     

    ‘Very high risk’ dead Soviet satellite, Chinese rocket body will collide

    “Holy Grail” Sought for More Than a Century: Researchers Synthesize Room Temperature Superconducting Material

    Magnetic Levitation

    The goal of new research led by Ranga Dias, assistant professor of mechanical engineering and of physics and astronomy, is to develop superconducting materials at room temperatures. Currently, extreme cold is required to achieve superconductivity, as demonstrated in this photo from Dias’s lab, in which a magnet floats above a superconductor cooled with liquid nitrogen. Credit: University of Rochester photo / J. Adam Fenster

    Compressing simple molecular solids with hydrogen at extremely high pressures, University of Rochester engineers and physicists have, for the first time, created material that is superconducting at room temperature.

    Featured as the cover story in the journal Nature, the work was conducted by the lab of Ranga Dias, an assistant professor of physics and mechanical engineering.

    Dias says developing materials that are superconducting — without electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic field at room temperature — is the “holy grail” of condensed matter physics. Sought for more than a century, such materials “can definitely change the world as we know it,” Dias says.

    In setting the new record, Dias and his research team combined hydrogen with carbon and sulfur to photochemically synthesize simple organic-derived carbonaceous sulfur hydride in a diamond anvil cell, a research device used to examine miniscule amounts of materials under extraordinarily high pressure.

    The carbonaceous sulfur hydride exhibited superconductivity at about 58 degrees Fahrenheit and a pressure of about 39 million psi. This is the first time that superconducting material has been observed at room temperatures.

    “Because of the limits of low temperature, materials with such extraordinary properties have not quite transformed the world in the way that many might have imagined. However, our discovery will break down these barriers and open the door to many potential applications,” says Dias, who is also affiliated with the University’s Materials Science and High Energy Density Physics programs.

    Applications include:

    • Power grids that transmit electricity without the loss of up to 200 million megawatt hours (MWh) of the energy that now occurs due to resistance in the wires.
    • A new way to propel levitated trains and other forms of transportation.
    • Medical imaging and scanning techniques such as MRI and magnetocardiography
    • Faster, more efficient electronics for digital logic and memory device technology.

    “We live in a semiconductor society, and with this kind of technology, you can take society into a superconducting society where you’ll never need things like batteries again,” says Ashkan Salamat of the University of Nevada Las Vegas, a coauthor of the discovery.

    The amount of superconducting material created by the diamond anvil cells is measured in picoliters — about the size of a single inkjet particle.

    The next challenge, Dias says, is finding ways to create the room temperature superconducting materials at lower pressures, so they will be economical to produce in greater volume. In comparison to the millions of pounds of pressure created in diamond anvil cells, the atmospheric pressure of Earth at sea level is about 15 PSI.

    Why room temperature matters

    First discovered in 1911, superconductivity gives materials two key properties. Electrical resistance vanishes. And any semblance of a magnetic field is expelled, due to a phenomenon called the Meissner effect. The magnetic field lines have to pass around the superconducting material, making it possible to levitate such materials, something that could be used for frictionless high-speed trains, known as maglev trains.

    Powerful superconducting electromagnets are already critical components of maglav trains, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) machines, particle accelerators and other advanced technologies, including early quantum supercomputers.

    But the superconducting materials used in the devices usually work only at extremely low temperatures — lower than any natural temperatures on Earth. This restriction makes them costly to maintain — and too costly to extend to other potential applications. “The cost to keep these materials at cryogenic temperatures is so high you can’t really get the full benefit of them,” Dias says.

    Previously, the highest temperature for a superconducting material was achieved last year in the lab of Mikhail Eremets at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany, and the Russell Hemley group at the University of Illinois at Chicago. That team reported superconductivity at -10 to 8 degrees Fahrenheit using lanthanum superhydride.

    Researchers have also explored copper oxides and iron-based chemicals as potential candidates for high temperature superconductors in recent years. However, hydrogen — the most abundant element in the universe — also offers a promising building block.

    “To have a high temperature superconductor, you want stronger bonds and light elements. Those are the two very basic criteria,” Dias says. “Hydrogen is the lightest material, and the hydrogen bond is one of the strongest.

    “Solid metallic hydrogen is theorized to have high Debye temperature and strong electron-phonon coupling that is necessary for room temperature superconductivity,” Dias says.

    However, extraordinarily high pressures are needed just to get pure hydrogen into a metallic state, which was first achieved in a lab in 2017 by Harvard University professor Isaac Silvera and Dias, then a postdoc in Silvera’s lab.

    A ‘paradigm shift’

    And so, Dias’s lab at Rochester has pursued a “paradigm shift” in its approach, using as an alternative, hydrogen-rich materials that mimic the elusive superconducting phase of pure hydrogen, and can be metalized at much lower pressures.

    First the lab combined yttrium and hydrogen. The resulting yttrium superhydride exhibited superconductivity at what was then a record high temperature of about 12 degrees Fahrenheit and a pressure of about 26 million pounds per square inch.

    Next the lab explored covalent hydrogen-rich organic-derived materials.

    This work resulted in the carbonaceous sulfur hydride. “This presence of carbon is of tantamount importance here,” the researchers report. Further “compositional tuning” of this combination of elements may be the key to achieving superconductivity at even higher temperatures, they add.

    Reference: “Room-temperature superconductivity in a carbonaceous sulfur hydride” by Elliot Snider, Nathan Dasenbrock-Gammon, Raymond McBride, Mathew Debessai, Hiranya Vindana, Kevin Vencatasamy, Keith V. Lawler, Ashkan Salamat and Ranga P. Dias, 14 October 2020, Nature.
    DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2801-z

    Other coauthors on the paper include lead author Elliot Snider ’19 (MS), Nathan Dasenbrock-Gammon ’18 (MA), Raymond McBride ’20 (MS), Kevin Vencatasamy ’21, and Hiranya Vindana (MS), all of the Dias lab; Mathew Debessai (Ph.D) of Intel Corporation, and Keith Lawlor (Ph.D) of the University of Nevada Las Vegas.

    The project was supported with funding from the National Science Foundation and the US Department of Energy’s Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program and its Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences. Preparation of the diamond surfaces was performed in part at the University of Rochester Integrated Nanosystems Center (URnano).

    Dias and Salamat have started a new company, Unearthly Materials to find a path to room temperature superconductors that can be scalably produced at ambient pressure.

    Patents are pending. Anyone interested in licensing the technology can contact Curtis Broadbent, licensing manager at URVentures.

    NZ radar could reveal possible space junk collision – NZ Herald

    A New Zealand-based radar will tell scientists if two pieces of space junk – together weighing 2.8 tonnes – collide or narrowly miss each other over Antarctica tomorrow afternoon. Image / LeoLabs Inc

    A New Zealand-based radar will tell scientists whether two pieces of space junk – together weighing 2.8 tonnes – will collide or narrowly miss each other over Antarctica tomorrow.

    LeoLabs, a company that tracks space junk, is warning of a “high risk” event – a potential collision between a defunct Russian spy satellite and a spent part of a Chinese rocket, just before 2pm Friday.

    The company’s latest forecast put the chances of Russian Cosmos satellite and the CZ-4C rocket slamming into each other, 991km above the Earth, at more than 10 per cent.

    LeoLabs warned the two objects could pass within just 12m of each other at a relative velocity of 14.7km per second, after earlier putting the chance of collision at one in 20.

    Whether that collision impact happened would be revealed by LeoLabs’ radar at Naseby, in Central Otago.

    “Shortly after [time of closest approach], we will have a direct pass of CZ-4C R/B over our Kiwi Space Radar in New Zealand,” the company tweeted today.

    “We have scheduled a search mode scan during this time to ensure we only see two objects as expected and hopefully confirm that no new debris is detected.”

    The possible point of collision was calculated at above the Weddell Sea, just off the coast of Antarctica.

    University of Auckland astronomer Professor Richard Easther expected the two objects would either “whizz past each other” or hit.

    If that happened, there were fears it could send thousands of new pieces of junk into space, threatening functioning satellites.

    “Anything that’s in space is both a target and a bullet,” he said.

    “And when you increase the number of pieces, you’re also increasing the likelihood of future collisions.”

    He saw the possible collision as a “wake-up call” for the space community to be more mindful about the consequences of debris in orbit.

    “That means ensuring that satellites are safely de-orbited, or moved out of the way, toward the end of their controllable life.”

    If the space junk problem couldn’t be tackled, the world could be locked into what’s called “Kessler Syndrome” – or where entering space becomes too dangerous.

    “And even if we don’t get the full-on Kessler Syndrome scenario, operating in space will just become much more complex.”

    Half of Australia Great Barrier Reef corals have died since the 1990s

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    Half of Australia Great Barrier Reef corals have died since the 1990s – YouTube

    ‘Very high risk’ defunct Russian Satellite and Chinese rocket body will collide tonight: report

    Experts believe a defunct Russian satellite and a discarded Chinese rocket could smash into each other high above the earth on Thursday, according to reports.

    Satellite-tracking company LeoLabs on Wednesday said the defunct objects could come within 39 feet of each other and that there was a 10% chance that they could still collide around 8:56 p.m. ET. The company deemed the potential crash to be a “very high risk.”

    “This event continues to be very high risk and will likely stay this way through the time of closest approach,” LeoLabs tweeted.

    NASA ASTRONAUT REACHES SPACE STATION AFTER ‘FAST-TRACK’ JOURNEY

    Jonathan McDowell, an astrophysicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, said the two objects were a defunct Soviet navigation satellite called Parus [Kosmos 2004] that launched in 1989 and a Chinese rocket stage.

    As of Tuesday, the objects — with a mass of roughly three metric tons — were in low-Earth orbit at an altitude of around 615 miles, LeoLabs said.

    SPACECRAFT MAY HUNT FOR LIFE AS IT FLIES PAST VENUS THIS WEEK

    Because the objects are located high above the ground, they don’t pose a risk to anyone on earth. However, a crash could cause more debris to orbit the earth, which could increase the risk of future collisions.

    The debris could also threaten astronauts.

    “If this turns into a collision, it’s probably thousands to tens of thousands of new pieces of debris that is going to cause a headache for any satellite that’s going out into upper low-Earth orbit, or even beyond,” said Dan Ceperley, the CEO of LeoLabs, according to Business Insider. “It’s maybe a much bigger problem than a lot of people realize.”

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    As of February this year, there are 128 million debris objects in orbit, according to the European Space Agency. Roughly 34,000 of those objects are greater than 10 cm. 

    ‘Super’ material raises hope of energy revolution

    Lab used to study superconductivity
    Scientists were able to observe superconducting behaviour at room temperature in the lab

    Scientists have found the first material that displays a much sought-after property at room temperature.

    It is superconducting, which means electrical current flows through it with perfect efficiency – with no energy wasted as heat.

    At the moment, a lot of the energy we generate is lost because of electrical resistance, which is lost as heat.

    So room temperature “superconducting” materials could revolutionise the electrical grid.

    Until this point, achieving superconductivity has required cooling materials to very low temperatures. When the property was discovered in 1911, it was found only at close to the temperature known as absolute zero (-273.15C).

    Since then, physicists have found materials that superconduct at higher – but still very cold – temperatures.

    Electricity pylons
    Room temperature superconductors could revolutionise the electrical grid

    The team behind this latest discovery says it’s a major advance in a search that has already gone on for a century.

    “Because of the limits of low temperature, materials with such extraordinary properties have not quite transformed the world in the way that many might have imagined,” said Dr Ranga Dias, from the University of Rochester, in New York State.

    “However, our discovery will break down these barriers and open the door to many potential applications.”

    Dr Dias added that room temperature superconductors “can definitely change the world as we know it”.

    In the US, electrical grids lose more than 5% of their energy through the process of transmission. So tackling this loss could potentially save billions of dollars and have an effect on the climate.

    A magnet floats above a superconductor cooled with liquid nitrogen
    A magnet floats above a superconductor cooled with liquid nitrogen

    The scientists observed the superconducting behaviour in a carbonaceous sulphur hydride compound at a temperature of 15C.

    However, the property only appeared at extremely high pressures of 267 billion pascals – about a million times higher than typical tyre pressure. This obviously limits its practical usefulness.

    So Dr Dias says the next goal will be to find ways to create room temperature superconductors at lower pressures, so they will be economical to produce in greater volume.

    These materials could have many other applications. These include a new way to propel levitated trains – like the Maglev trains that “float” above the track in Japan and Shanghai, China. Magnetic levitation is a feature of some superconducting materials.

    Another application would be faster, more efficient electronics.

    “With this kind of technology, you can take society into a superconducting society where you’ll never need things like batteries again,” said co-author Ashkan Salamat of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

    The results are published in the prestigious journal Nature.

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    La NASA attribue à 14 entreprises américaines 370 millions de dollars pour transformer l'espace

    Alors que la NASA s’apprête à retourner sur la lune en 2024 et à se diriger vers Mars plusieurs années plus tard, l’agence spatiale a attribué un certain nombre de Entreprises américaines avec des contrats d’une valeur de 370 millions de dollars pour aider à réaliser ces projets.

    Les contrats, attribués mercredi, concernent une variété d’initiatives différentes, y compris la gestion des fluides cryogéniques et «le premier système de communication LTE / 4G dans l’espace».

    «L’investissement important de la NASA dans des démonstrations de technologies innovantes, menées par de petites et grandes entreprises américaines dans neuf États, élargira ce qui est possible dans l’espace et sur la surface lunaire», a déclaré l’administrateur de la NASA Jim Bridenstine dans un déclaration . «Ensemble, la NASA et l’industrie mettent en place un éventail de capacités prêtes pour les missions pour soutenir une présence durable sur la Lune et les futures missions humaines sur Mars.»

    This photograph was taken from the Apollo 8 spacecraft with long-focal length lens, looking south at the large crater Goclenius, which is in foreground. Credits: NASA/JSC

    Cette photographie a été prise depuis le vaisseau spatial Apollo 8 avec un objectif à longue focale, regardant vers le sud le grand cratère Goclenius, qui est au premier plan. Crédits: NASA / JSC

    LES ASTRONAUTES DE LA NASA ATTEINDENT LA STATION SPATIALE APRÈS LE «FAST-TRACK JOURNEY»

    Les 14 contrats totalisent plus de 370 millions de dollars et les contrats à prix fixe peuvent durer jusqu’à cinq ans.

    Dans le cadre de la «sollicitation de point de basculement» de la NASA, ces contrats aideront l’agence spatiale et ses partenaires à «développer une gamme de technologies qui aideront à tracer la voie vers des opérations Artemis durables sur la Lune. d’ici la fin de la décennie », a ajouté la NASA.

    Une technologie est à l’étude pour le programme Tipping Point “si un investissement dans une démonstration permet de faire évoluer considérablement la technologie, d’augmenter la probabilité d’infusion dans une application spatiale commerciale et de mettre la technologie sur le marché pour le gouvernement et applications commerciales », selon une description du programme.

    Voici la liste des entreprises américaines et les montants accordés, ainsi que le but du contrat.

    Démonstration de la technologie de gestion des fluides cryogéniques

    • Eta Space, contrat de 27 millions de dollars pour “la démonstration en vol à petite échelle d’un système complet de gestion des fluides cryogéniques à oxygène”.
    • Lockheed Martin, contrat de 89,7 millions de dollars pour “une mission de démonstration dans l’espace utilisant de l’hydrogène liquide … pour tester plus d’une douzaine de technologies de gestion des fluides cryogéniques, les positionnant pour une infusion dans les futurs systèmes spatiaux.”
    • SpaceX, contrat de 53,2 millions de dollars pour “une démonstration de vol à grande échelle pour transférer 10 tonnes métriques de propulseur cryogénique, en particulier de l’oxygène liquide, entre les réservoirs d’un véhicule Starship.”
    • United Launch Alliance, contrat de 86,2 millions de dollars pour “la démonstration d’un système cryogénique à propulsion intelligente, utilisant de l’oxygène liquide et de l’hydrogène, sur un étage supérieur Vulcan Centaur”.

    La ​​NASA se prépare à atterrir sur un astéroïde qui pourrait contenir les blocs de construction de la vie

    Lunar Surface Innovation Initiative Technology Demonstration

    • Alpha Space Test and Research Alliance, contrat de 22,1 millions de dollars pour «donner à de petites expériences l’accès à l’environnement lunaire pour collecter des données et faire l’expérience de l’exposition aux rayons ultraviolets et aux particules chargées».
    • Astrobotic, contrat de 5,8 millions de dollars pour «arriver à maturité et démontrer un système de charge rapide et sans fil qui relève les défis associés à l’utilisation de la technologie sur la Lune».
    • Intuitive Machines, contrat de 41,6 millions de dollars pour «développer un petit atterrisseur à trémie déployable capable de transporter une charge utile de 2,2 livres (1 kilogramme) de plus de 1,5 miles (2,5 kilomètres)».
    • Masten Space Systems Contrat de 2,8 millions de dollars pour «construire et démontrer une pièce jointe universelle de source de chaleur chimique et d’énergie électrique qui permet aux charges utiles de survivre aux environnements extrêmes rencontrés pendant la nuit lunaire et dans les cratères».
    • Masten Space Systems, contrat de 10 millions de dollars pour “démontrer les capacités de test d’atterrissage de précision et d’évitement des dangers sur les trajectoires lunaires pertinentes.”
    • Nokia of America, contrat de 14,1 millions de dollars pour «déployer le premier système de communication LTE / 4G dans l’espace».
    • pH Matter, contrat de 3,4 millions de dollars pour «démontrer une pile à combustible réversible et régénérative capable de produire de l’énergie et de stocker de l’énergie sur la surface lunaire».
    • Precision Combustion, contrat de 2,4 millions de dollars pour «faire progresser une solution d’alimentation économique pour les applications spatiales, militaires et quotidiennes sur Terre».
    • Sierra Nevada, contrat de 2,4 millions de dollars pour «développer du matériel à l’échelle de démonstration qui utilise du méthane et de l’énergie solaire concentrée pour extraire l’oxygène du régolithe lunaire».
    • SSL Robotics, contrat de 8,7 millions de dollars pour «développer un bras robotique plus léger et moins coûteux pour les applications de surface lunaire, la maintenance en orbite et les applications de défense terrestre».
    • Teledyne Energy Systems, contrat de 2,8 millions de dollars pour «faire progresser un système d’alimentation électrique à hydrogène afin de permettre une pile à combustible d’une durée de vie de 10 000 heures».

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